Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Climate change clearly has two vital aspects – one is mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for low carbon growth and the other is adaptation to impacts of climate change on eco-systems and its services, assets and critical infrastructures and human beings.

In terms of mitigation, ever since the Climate Deal, as an outcome of the 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) at Paris in 2015, was signed in 2016 by almost all countries across the globe with an overarching aim to limit the average global temperature rise in this century within 20C of the pre-industrial level, the focus of the Governments and the private companies have shifted towards more sustainable way of doing business in terms of smarter resource stewardship, supply chain risk assessment and an efficient system of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of measurable emission reduction targets.

In the space of adaptation, the focus of businesses is on assessing climate risk exposure of the critical assets, modelling of the climate drivers at both micro and macroeconomic levels and taking necessary measures to build a climate resilient economy.

Given the context, we can help you in a broad range of areas that include:

  • Modelling of climate drivers (trend and projections) and vulnerability assessment
  • Building climate resilient eco-systems and infrastructure, disaster risk reduction
  • Greenhouse gas inventory design and carbon footprint
  • Designing climate financing models, carbon offset and trading mechanisms
  • Framework for efficient natural resource management and conservation of biodiversity

Our specific service offerings include:

  1. Climate change adaptation and mitigation policies covering climate modelling; assessment of climate change risk, exposure and vulnerability; low carbon roadmap; disaster risk reduction; designing MRV tools; Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), feasibility assessment of adaptation and mitigation measures – cost benefits, gender, environmental and social safeguard valuation
  2. Institutional strengthening and capacity building for Ministries, regulators, public sector utilities, private companies on climate change mitigation, adaptation, low carbon development, waste to energy, natural resource conservation and energy efficiency
  3. Establishment of emissions baseline and reduction of carbon footprint at national, sub-national and organization levels
  4. Climate financing models evaluation of climate financing tools, preparation of proposals for Green Climate Fund, NAMA, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), trading of certified emission reductions
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Contributing towards a paradigm shift

A case study on providing guidance for improved environmental and social regulations in the banking sector

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Prioritization of climate change action plans for an emerging economy

Synopsis: We assisted an international donor agency and the Ministry of Environment and Forest of a neighboring country to prioritise climate change mitigation action plans in short, medium and long terms.

  • Issue/What was the problem: The client had a set of policy actions that needed to be prioritised based on the investment requirements and mitigation potential of each action.  Also there was significant requirement of capacity building of the line Ministries and implementing agencies in terms of institutional strengthening, skill set mapping and creation of knowledge base.
  • Action/What we did: We carried out multi-stakeholder consultations with the policy makers, experts, industries from different sectors, operational staff of relevant ministries and line agencies. Based on the information collected from the stakeholder consultations and document review, we conducted cost-benefit analysis (CBA) or cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of the proposed policy actions using the UN advocated multi-criteria analysis (MCA) tool and prioritised the options applying appropriate risk screening methodologies. In addition, we identified possible CDM projects and NAMAs that might be developed for harnessing financing for the identified and prioritised mitigation actions.

Carbon market roadmap for India

Synopsis: We advised an international developmental agency to develop a strategy for development of future carbon markets in India.

  • Issue/What was the problem: By the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, there were uncertainties around how the carbon market and emissions profile of the Indian economy would look like post 2012 regime. Also there was a need to understand the quality of the emission reduction projects in terms of sustainable development benefits and how the benefits may be enhanced under future carbon trading mechanisms.
  • Action/What we did: We reviewed the existing status of transaction of certified emission reductions in compliance and voluntary markets. We assessed the impacts of international negotiations and India’s national commitment on future of emissions trading and emissions profiling of the country. We also identified the sustainable development indicators for Indian projects and their actual impacts in terms of environmental, technological and socio-economic wellbeing at a regional and national levels. Based on the assessments, we developed the future trajectory of Indian carbon market and recommended improvement measures to be considered by the project proponents for enhancing the sustainable development impacts of future carbon mechanisms. 

Climate change vulnerability and disaster risk assessment of fragile mountain ecosystems

Synopsis: We advised an international developmental organization to develop national capacities of a neighboring country to identify, prioritize and appraise the costs of adaptation and mitigation in fragile mountain ecosystem services to reduce climate-induced disaster risks.

  • Issue/What was the problem: The client did not have a sustainability strategy focussing on the lifecycle environmental impacts of their products. There was a need for incorporation of issues of importance to the company’s stakeholders in the strategy. 
  • Action/What we did: To start with we identified the fragile mountain ecosystem hotspots in the country that are most vulnerable to climate change impacts. Subsequently, we designed the vulnerability and disaster risk assessment methodology as per the latest internationally accepted definition of climate change vulnerability. Based on the methodology developed, we carried out comprehensive climate vulnerability, disaster risk and adaptation assessment and listed out the plausible adaptation and mitigation measures based on discussion with relevant stakeholders. The plausible adaptation and mitigation options were prioritised based on detailed assessments of cost-benefits, environmental and social safeguards and gender inclusivity. Capacity building of stakeholders on implementation of prioritised adaptation and mitigation measures were also a part of the project outcomes. 

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Contact us

Yasir Ahmad

Partner and Leader, Sustainability and Responsible Business Advisory, PwC India

Tel: +91 124 330 6491

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